The Fortezza Vecchia in Livorno is where Galileo and the scientists at the Accademia del Cimento made important observations and carried out significant experiments regarding pendulums and the movement of propelled objects.
Florence boats more than a few connections to Galileo. Up first is the Torrino della Specola, which was built under Giovanni Battista Amici, the director of the observatory at La Specola, including the Torrino, and founder of the Officine Galileo, a producer of scientific and astronomical equipment. There’s also the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, near the villa where Galileo spent his last years. Then we have the Garden of Archimedes, Florence’s mathematics museum, where visitors can carry out some of Galileo’s experiments and have fun while learning some of the fundamental principles of mechanics.
Prato is home to the Museum of Planetary Sciences, where visitors can gain a better understanding of the solar system by studying the observations of Jupiter’s satellites originally carried out by Galileo in 1609. In San Marcello Pistoiese, you can take a “trip” around the solar system at the Parco delle Stelle, near the astronomical observatory. In Siena, you can explore themes like the solar system, measuring time by the movement of the stars and the “horror vacui’ at the Accademia dei Fisiocritici.